Urbanization is changing global structure tremendously as rural-to-urban migration increases. Over the next 30 years, the majority of the world's population is projected to live in cities, which has a profound impact on people's lives on many levels. Urban development and transportation are strongly interconnected. Transport has become an essential part of daily life in this modern world. Development in economics and society relies heavily on transport. Connecting people to jobs, education, health care, and each other is a vital part of both transportation and urban infrastructure. However, due to the increasing consumption of energy and air pollution, city management is considering the concept of green cities.
Today, humanity is facing various global challenges such as climate change, rapid urbanization, degrading forest covers, rising sea levels, accelerated consumption, resource reduction, and an imbalance of social-economic development which can be challenging to achieve sustainable development.