Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with study and treatment of various disorders of Nervous System. Nervous System is a complex, sophisticated system that coordinates and regulates body functions and has two major divisions:Central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord, Peripheral nervous system: all other neural elements, such as eyes, ears, skin, and other "sensory receptors".
Neurologists are specialists who treat diseases of the brain and spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles.
Some of the common disorders of Nervous System are Alzheimer's Disease, Acute Spinal Cord Injury, Ataxia, Brain Tumors, Cerebral Aneurysm, Epilepsy and Seizures, Meningitis, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, Stroke, Myasthenia Gravis, Bell's Palsy.
Neuroscience is also known as Neurobiology. It is a multidisciplinary science that includes developmental biology, physiology, molecular biology, anatomy, cytology, mathematical modeling and psychology to understand the fundamental and evolving properties of neurons and neural circuits.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect the nervous system's cellular structure and the neural processes by which they influence behavior. There are two major divisions of neuropharmacology: Molecular and Behavioral.
The study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions, with the ultimate aim of developing drugs that have beneficial effects on neurological function, includes molecular neuropharmacology.
The study of how drugs influence human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), including the study of how drug dependency and addiction affect the human brain, includes behavioral neuropharmacology.
The interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems are closely related in all of these areas. Researchers are researching medications to treat many different neurological conditions, including pain, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, psychiatric disorders, addiction, and many others, in order to study these interactions.
A progressive neurological condition that causes the brain to shrink (atrophy) and death of brain cells is Alzheimer's disease. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease-a continuous deterioration in thought, behavioral and social skills that affects the ability of an individual to work independently. Forgetting recent events or conversations are the early symptoms of the disease. An individual with Alzheimer's disease may experience significant memory failure as the disease progresses and lose the ability to perform daily tasks. Medications can improve or delay the progression of symptoms temporarily. Sometimes, these medications may help individuals with Alzheimer's disease maximize function and retain independence for a period of time. Different programs and services can help support people and their families with Alzheimer's disease. Brain changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease can affect moods and behaviors. Problems may include the following: Depression, Social withdrawal, Changes in sleeping habits, Loss of inhibitions, Delusions etc.
Neurosurgery is also known as neurological surgery. The medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment and recovery of conditions involving any portion of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system and cerebrovascular system, is neurosurgery. As a result of highly crafted instruments, the biggest developments in neurosurgery came about. Chisels, curettes, power tools, elevators, dissectors, distractors, forceps, hooks, probes, impactors, suction tubes and robots are all modern neurosurgical tools or instruments. Most of these modern devices have been in medical practice for a very long time, such as chisels, elevators, forceps, hooks, impactors, and probes. Most neurosurgical disorders, including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage, include neurosurgery generally. Some of these divisions of neurosurgery are: Vascular neurosurgery, Skull base surgery, Peripheral nerve surgery, Pediatric neurosurgery, Spinal neurosurgery, Oncological neurosurgery, Stereotactic neurosurgery. Modern neurosurgery diagnosis and treatment involve the use of neuroradiology methods. These methods include computer assisted imaging computed tomography (CT), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and stereotactic radiosurgery. Some neurosurgery procedures involve the use of intra-operative MRI and functional MRI. Conditions treated by neurosurgery are brain hemorrhages, skull fractures, Lumbar spinal stenosis, Cervical spinal stenosis, Meningitis, Spinal disc herniation, Some forms of drug-resistant epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Moyamoya disease etc
Neuropathology is the study of nervous system tissue disease, typically in the form of either small surgical biopsies or autopsies of the entire body. Neuropathologists normally work in the anatomical pathology department, but work closely with the neurology and neurosurgery clinical disciplines, which also rely on neuropathology for diagnosis. Neuropathology also refers to forensic medicine, since the cause of death may be associated with brain damage or brain injury. Neuropathology should not be confused with neuropathy, which, rather than the tissues, refers to nerve diseases themselves (usually in the peripheral nervous system). In neuropathology, the divisions of the nervous system as well as tissue specializations come together in one area of study.
Neuroendocrinology is the biology branch (specifically physiology) that studies the relationship between the nervous system and the endocrine system, i.e. how the hormonal activity in the body is regulated by the brain. In a process called neuroendocrine integration, the nervous and endocrine systems frequently work together in order to control the physiological functions of the human body. Euroendocrinology emerged from the recognition that pituitary gland hormone secretion is regulated by the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, and has subsequently grown to examine various endocrine and nervous system interconnections. The neuroendocrine system is the mechanism by which homeostasis is preserved by the hypothalamus, which regulates reproduction, metabolism, blood pressure, eating and drinking. energy utilization and osmolarity.
Major neuroendocrine systems:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). In MS, the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers is attacked by the immune system and causes contact issues between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, permanent damage or weakening of the nerves may result from the disease. MS signs and symptoms differ greatly and depend on the amount of damage to the nerves and what nerves are affected. Some individuals with extreme MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others without any new symptoms may experience lengthy periods of remission. Depending on the location of the damaged nerve fibers, various signs and symptoms of sclerosis can vary dramatically from person to person and over the course of the disease. Sometimes, symptoms influence movement, such as: In one or more joints, numbness or weakness usually occurs on one side of the body or your legs and trunk at a time, Sensations of electric shock that occur with certain movements of the neck, especially bending the neck forward, Tremor, absence of coordination
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder that affects movement, often including tremors. Symptoms of Parkinson's generally start out progressively and get worse over time. People can have trouble walking and talking as the disease progresses. They may also experience mental and behavioral changes, issues with sleep, depression, trouble with memory, and fatigue. Parkinson's disease occurs when nerve cells, or neurons, become damaged and/or die in a region of the brain that regulates movement. These neurons usually create an essential brain chemical known as dopamine. They produce less dopamine when the neurons die or become damaged, which causes the movement problems of Parkinson's. The cure is, consequently, well past the treatment of side effects. There are two simple ways of approaching more effective dopaminergic activity in the mind right now: increasing dopamine emission with exogenous operators and concentrating on related pathways of neurotransmission. Levodopa is the regular dopamine metabolic antecedent and is a profound success in the treatment of PD indications. People with Parkinson's also lose the nerve endings that stimulate norepinephrine, the sympathetic nervous system's primary chemical messenger, which regulates many automatic body functions, such as heart rate and blood pressure. Norepinephrine loss can help explain some of the non-movement manifestations of Parkinson's
The words muscle disease myopathy, neuromuscular conditions 'and' neuromuscular disorders 'all describe a wide group of conditions that affect either the muscles, such as those in the arms and legs or heart and lungs, or the nerves that regulate the muscles. Neuromuscular disorders are a generic term that involves a large variety of diseases with various presentations. Some neuromuscular diseases have symptoms that begin in infancy and others in childhood or adulthood, where the symptoms can appear. Depending on the type of neuromuscular condition and the affected biological structure, symptoms can be found in various parts of the body. Common symptoms include: Muscle atrophy, Breathing and swallowing difficulties, Numbness or loss of sensation, Loss of balance and motor control, Muscle weakness.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the nervous system's structure and function. In comparison to radial symmetry animals whose nervous system consists of a distributed cell network, bilateral symmetry animals have segregated, established nervous systems. Therefore, their neuroanatomy is best known. The nervous system in vertebrates is divided into the inner structure of the brain and spinal cord (collectively called the central nervous system or CNS) and the nerve pathways that bind to the rest of the body (known as the peripheral nervous system, or PNS).
Neuro-oncology is the study of neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord, many of which are very risky and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, glioma, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Gliomas of the brain stem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade astrocytoma are among the worst malignant brain cancers. At any age, from infancy to late in life, primary brain tumors may occur. During their prime years, these tumors often afflict people. In differential diagnosis, variables such as age, tumor position and clinical appearance are beneficial. Most primary brain tumors are more prevalent in men, except for meningiomas, which are more prevalent in women. For the assessment of some primary tumors, metastatic conditions, and neurological complications of cancer, lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis are important.
The scientific area concerned with the study of biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition is cognitive neuroscience, with a particular emphasis on the neural connections in the brain involved in mental processes. It addresses the questions of how neuronal circuits in the brain influence or regulate cognitive functions. Cognitive neuroscience is a neuroscience and psychology branch that overlaps with fields such as behavioral neuroscience, cognitive psychology, physiological psychology, and affective neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience is focused on cognitive science hypotheses combined with neurobiological data and computer modeling. Experimental processes from psychophysics and cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, electrophysiology, cognitive genomics, and behavioral genetics are techniques used in cognitive neuroscience. In addition, in the subfield of developmental cognitive neuroscience, cognitive abilities dependent on brain growth are researched and examined. This illustrates brain growth over time, analyzing differences and concocting potential causes for these differences.
Neuroplasticity, which involves two synaptic and non-synaptic plasticity, is also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity and refers to improvement in neural pathways and synapses due to variations in actions, environment, neural processes, thought, and emotions, as well as changes arising from the body. The purpose of this session is to understand the developments in brain plasticity in the remodeling of neurites and how to increase neural connections. Neurorehabilitation is a treatment procedure aimed at helping recovery from damage to the nervous system and mitigating or compensating for any functional changes arising from it.